WHY WE NEED CRISPR TECHNOLOGY ?
CRISPR technology is undoubtedly one of the breakthrough discoveries in this era in genetic engineering. Originally discovered as an intrinsic component of prokaryotic defense against viruses, the CRISPR/Cas system has the prospect of becoming the leading technology in medical research, industrial biology, agriculture, and biofuel in the future.
Cas9 Protein | DNA Repair
Cas9 (CRISPR associated protein 9, formerly called Cas5, Csn1, or Csx12) is a 160 kilodalton protein which plays a vital role in the immunological defense of certain bacteria against DNA viruses and plasmids, and is heavily utilized in genetic engineering applications. Its main function is to cut DNA and thereby alter a cell's genome. The CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technique was a significant contributor to the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2020 being awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna.
Based on the effector genes, the CRISPR/Cas system can be functionally classified into classes 1 and 2. Owing to its precise gene-editing capability, CRISPR has accelerated research related to drug design to treat diseases such as HIV and Cancer that have since long remained a challenge for conventional therapeutics.